Tile Roof Repair

Metal Tile: Stone-coated steel originated during World War II and was developed by a New Zealand industrialist who developed coatings and shapes from the original corrugated material. Today’s stone-coated steel panels incorporate the same basic ingredients with a high tech flavor. The coatings themselves have greatly improved.

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Tiles Installed on 1×6

 

Tiles Installed on 1×6

This installation method is no longer allowed because it was prone to seepage.  Current requirements state a solid roof deck with a minimum of 30 lb. underlayment must be installed before tile is put on roof.

Tile Installed On Low Slope

 

Tile Installed On Low Slope

When tile is installed on a low slope, the tile may shed some water but it primarily is decorative. Below the tile a waterproof membrane must be installed to avoid seepage – Ice & Water Shield, a built-up roof membrane, etc. This membrane has to be approved by the manufacturer and the city.

Tiles Not Offset

 

Tiles Not Offset

Tiles work by their overlapping design. As the previous layer is covered by the next, it creates a stair step water shed design, disallowing seepage. This stair step design also has a vertical component to it. If each row is not offset correctly, water may enter the system. This roof does not have the proper offset and was installed “line on line,” which can allow water to travel under the system.

Damaged Underlayment and Dry Rot Deck

 

Damaged Underlayment and Dry Rot Deck

Tile will shed water, but with windy conditions, rain can get under the tile. Over time, the water can damage the underlayment, seep to the roof deck, create dry rot and interior damage. If a high performance underlayment is used, it can last for 50 years or more.

30 lb Underlayment

 

30 lb Underlayment

The tile industry allows a 30 lb underlayment minimum requirement in an effort to reduce costs. Many roofs were installed with simple felt paper. This type of underlayment does not last. Tiles have to be removed to replace the underlayment.

No Weather Block at Ridge

 

No Weather Block at Ridge

Some tile manufacturers allow this application. With strong winds, water will get in and under the tiles, which can damage the underlayment over time. Weather block can be mortar, flashband, or ABS plastic that conforms to the tile or synthetic mortar, which does not crack and separate.

Torn Lead Flashing At Wall

 

Torn Lead Flashing At Wall

Lead is used because it will conform to the shape of the tile. However, lead is a soft metal and can tear easily when stressed or not supported. Apply additional lead over the tear and/or apply urethane sealant to adhere.

Bottom Of Valley Misoriented

 

Bottom Of Valley Misoriented

The flashing detail is bucking water, which diverts the water under the tile. This will eventually damage the underlayment. The flashing and tile has to be custom fit so the water flows down the roof, not under it.

Vent Cap Rusted Out, Damaged, Missing

 

Vent Cap Rusted Out, Damaged, Missing

Over time, exhaust from appliances will corrode and deteriorate the vent; damage from termite fumigation people, or wind can cause

the top to blow off. Repair or replace vent cap as needed.

Vent Oriented Improperly

 

Vent Oriented Improperly

The base of the attic vent traps water diverting it under the tile. This will eventually damage the underlayment. Reorient the attic vent to shed water down the roof.

Vent Separated at Base

 

Vent Separated at Base

Over time the lead base can separate from the steel vent stack. It can be repaired with caulking or fabric and elastomerics. However, this will only have to be repaired again. The best solution is to replace the vent.

Pipe Jack Separated at Base

 

Pipe Jack Separated at Base

Over time the lead base can separate from the steel vent stack. It can be repaired with caulking or fabric and elastomerics. However, this will only have to be repaired again. The best solution is to replace the vent.

Plastic Plumber’s Flashing Used

 

Plastic Plumber’s Flashing Used

The plastic gasket is cracked open or concave. The sun eventually damages the gasket that is mechanically fastened to the galvanized base, which can leave a large opening for water intrusion. Replace the flashing or reseal with rubberized asphalt.

Collar At Vent Missing/Not Sealed

 

Collar At Vent Missing/Not Sealed

The collar may never have been installed. Install if needed. Apply sealant between the pipe and collar to prevent seepage.

Plumber’s Flashing/Vent Popped Up

 

Plumber’s Flashing/Vent Popped Up

In strong winds the flashing can come loose and pop up, allowing seepage. Reanchor the flashing base.

Broken Skylight

 

Broken Skylight

The amount of time it takes for the plastic dome to break down depends upon the quality of the plastic used to make the skylight. The dome can sometimes be replaced. It is easier just to replace the whole skylight. Some manufacturers give a lifetime warranty, even for plastic domes. Glass is heavier and more expensive than plastic. Glass has a higher R-value and lasts indefinitely.

 

 

Ridge Overexposed

 

Ridge Overexposed

This is an application error. You can reinstall a section of the ridge correctly or seal between the tiles and seal the nail hole, which will need to be maintained.

Skylight/Flashing/No Overlap

 

Skylight/Flashing/No Overlap

The flashing does not go up high enough for the skylight frame to overlap the flashing and the wood curb is exposed. This is open and will allow seepage. Remove the skylight and install a counterflashing on top of the curb that overlaps the flashing on the side.

Top Course Overexposed

 

Top Course Overexposed

This is an application error. You can reinstall a section of tile or flash between the top of the top course and the ridge.

 

Roof Open At Hip and Field Tile Intersection

 

Roof Open At Hip and Field Tile Intersection

The roof just below the top hip tile must allow water to flow through and around to prevent water from channeling under the tile. Take roof apart, reorient, seal, flash and divert water to prevent seepage.

Gutter in Stucco

 

Gutter in Stucco

When the house was built, the sheet metal installer put the gutter too close to the stucco paper. When the stucco was applied, it went around the gutter, not behind it. Over time the gutter joint can deteriorate, allowing seepage in the wall. Remove the gutter, cut the end back, reinstall the gutter end, repair the wall with waterproofing materials, then reinstall the gutter.

Pan Flashing Not Installed Properly

 

Pan Flashing Not Installed Properly

The pan flashing is designed to carry water along the wall and out on top of the roof. The bottom of the flashing ends under the roof. Reorient the end of the pan flashing. The counterflashing, a 1 x 4 with a beveled edge on top, is pulling away from the wall, allowing seepage between the pan flashing and the wall. Reanchor the 1 x 4 and seal the top. This will have to be maintained.

“L” Flashing Not Installed

 

“L” Flashing Not Installed

“L” flashing was never installed behind the siding and over the tile. Water can seep between the wall and tile intersection and the underlayment. Install “L” flashing.

Insufficient Overlap at Rake and Field Tile

 

Insufficient Overlap at Rake and Field Tile

The field tile was trimmed too much, leaving an opening for water intrusion, which will deteriorate the underlayment and cause dry rot and seepage. Re-cut and install new tile and/or install lead flashing to divert water.

Roof Open at Field and Rake Tile

 

Roof Open at Field and Rake Tile

This is open for water to channel under the tile, which will damage the underlayment, cause dry rot and seepage. Re-cut tile and/or orient a flashing detail to divert water on top of the tile.

Ridge Not Sealed Together

 

Ridge Not Sealed Together

The hip/ridge is highly susceptible to blow-off. Tile manufacturers recommend applying sealant between the overlap of the ridge to prevent damage. Apply sealant at overlap of ridge.

Cap Blown Off

 

Cap Blown Off

The most susceptible area on a roof to wind damage is the cap. Cap tiles are used to cover the hip and ridge areas of two adjoining decks. Over time, movement causes the mortar to break loose from the cap tiles. Since mortar does not self-heal, it continues to separate. If mortar is the only attachment method, the cap tiles are held by gravity alone once the bond is fully broken. Repair the mortar. Apply sealant between hip tiles.

Rake Tile Missing

 

Rake Tile Missing

For aesthetic purposes, tile roof installation occasionally specifies that rake tiles be installed at rake edges. Tile manufacturers have released technical bulletins warning of the potential danger arising from this practice. Rake tiles are installed with two nails. More than half of the eight-pound tile is hanging over the roof’s edge, providing a fall danger. Install the missing rake tile or redesign the rake edge.

Solar Penetrations/No Diverter

 

Solar Penetrations/No Diverter

No diverter installed above roof penetration and sealant is dried out, which can allow seepage. Install water diverter and reseal.

Gutter Popped Out/Loose

 

Gutter Popped Out/Loose

The gutter was never fastened properly and/or the downspout was clogged and the weight of the water caused it to come loose. If the gutter is not reattached and oriented properly, the eave will get wet and dry rot will result.

Gaps At Plumber’s Flashing

 

Gaps At Plumber’s Flashing

Counter-flashing is what bridges a roof to wall intersection, a chimney, etc. If it is not sealed, water can get behind it and seepage can result. This is usually a simple repair – apply elastomerics.

Sealant/Flashband Open/Missing/Loose

 

Sealant/Flashband Open/Missing/Loose

Flashband is not designed to be exposed to the sun long term. It comes loose and falls off. Adjust rake tiles. Reinstall flashband and paint to match, or, install lead sealed with urethane. Paint lead to match for a more permanent repair.

Mortar Cracked

 

Mortar Cracked

Years ago hip and ridge were set completely in mortar. This typically lasted many years. Installations today pack the area under the hip/ridge with newspaper and put a thin layer of mortar to cover the paper. It does not last. The mortar cracks, gets loose, and can fall off. Reattach with urethane or flexible mortar, or take apart and fill the void completely with mortar.

Tiles Missing

 

Tiles Missing

Tiles are usually missing because they were never attached or have come loose.

Tile Corners Damaged

 

Tile Corners Damaged

This is usually caused from stepping on the corner. If it is severe, replace the tile. If it is minor, it can be repaired.

No Bird Stop Installed

 

No Bird Stop Installed

Bird stop is used to prevent rodents and birds from nesting under the tile. Bird stop is installed before the first row of tiles. It is difficult to install after the roof has been installed. Install missing bird stop.

Drip Edge/Fascia Too High

 

Drip Edge/Fascia Too High

The bottom edge of the tile on the first course has to be raised so the tile will nestle together correctly. A high fascia board or 1 x 2 batt, or improper eave riser, will cause water to sit at the eave edge. Proper eave risers have weep holes to allow for drainage. A Styrofoam wedge can be placed under the underlayment behind the fascia to prevent water from sitting and seeping in at eave edge.

Loose Counterflashing

 

Loose Counterflashing

Counterflashing is metal flashing installed into the wall to create a transition from the roof area to the wall. The counterflashing, which has a concealed return flashing cut and installed into the wall, has come loose from the wall and is allowing water to enter. Reattach and seal to stop water intrusion.

Pan Flashing Behind Wall at Bottom

 

Pan Flashing Behind Wall at Bottom

Pan flashing is designed to bridge the roof-to-wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water which runs down the roof and wall is caught by the pan flashing and channeled to the roof’s edge. It is important that the pan flashing’s end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show and may only be noticeable in heavy rains, giving the water time to soak enough to be evident. Cut out the old flashings and install new. Repair the siding and seal it.

Improper Fasteners

 

Improper Fasteners

Some tiles are designed to be installed using two fasteners. Each tile has predrilled holes. If a wide screw or nail is used, it can crack the tile. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds.

Rusted Flashings

 

Rusted Flashings

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. This area should have been painted and maintained. Today’s flashings are made out of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. Rust cannot be simply sealed over; it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be treated chemically, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we recommend repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

Improper Overlap

 

Improper Overlap

When installing a roof system, it is important to always start at the lowest point and proceed upward toward the roof’s peak. This ensures that each layer of materials overlaps the previous. The “L” flashing at the wall is under the tile and will allow water to travel under the tile, which will cause damage to the underlayment and seepage. Reorient or replace the flashing.

Tie-in Not Sealed Properly

 

Tie-in Not Sealed Properly

The intersection between your pitched roof and the flat roof is called the “tie-in.” This area is important because there are two different roofing materials that must be integrated correctly. The top roof must be removed to correct what is underneath, then reinstalled.

Fasteners Exposed & Uplifting

 

Fasteners Exposed & Uplifting

Fasteners should be covered by the course or the flashing above. These fasteners are exposed and “high nailed.” Reanchor nails and re-flash.

Cracked/Broken Tile

 

Cracked/Broken Tile

As a roof expands and contracts, the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement, the tiles can bind against each other. Sometimes a tree branch may impact the roof, causing damage. If people walk across the roof, they can cause damage. The tiles on this roof have been damaged, exposing the underlayment, and should be replaced if the tile is available. Broken tiles can sometimes be repaired.

Slipping/sliding Tiles

 

Slipping/sliding Tiles

With the extra tile weight and without enough fasteners to hold the tiles to the deck, gravity will cause the roof system to slide, especially on high-pitched roofs. When tiles are cut at hips, the piece of the tile that has a nail hole is discarded. If the installer did not drill a new hole and fasten the hip cut, the tile can slide.

Tree/bush growing over roofline

 

Tree/bush growing over roofline

This can break the tiles and damage the roof. Trim the tree/bush away from the roof line.

Debris On The Roof

 

Debris On The Roof

This can cause water to back up and allow seepage. It can also cause dry rot in the underlayment, which in turn leads to premature roof failure. Remove the debris.

Improper Flashings at Gable End

 

Improper Flashings at Gable End

The barge rafter goes past the top of the tile to the roof deck and is sealed with caulking. It can be re-caulked, a temporary measure as it will need to be re-caulked again in the near future. The permanent fix is to reorient and re-flash the area correctly so it will last the life of the roof.

Ridge Nailer Installed Too High

 

Ridge Nailer Installed Too High

Remove ridge tiles, adjust ridge nailer to proper height. Seal with flashband.

Plastic Gutter

 

Plastic Gutter

Plastic gutters do not come with a wing. The plastic gutter company makes a plastic diverter to divert the water into the gutter. If it is not installed, the edge of the roof deck will develop dry rot.

Chimney Chase Leaks at Top

 

Chimney Chase Leaks at Top

A chimney chase is usually a wood framed box.  The pipe for the fireplace goes through the box and out the top.  Typical roof chimney flashings are installed then siding covers the framing and overlaps the chimney flashing.  Last a metal top is installed which allows the chimney flue to go through to the outside air.  The metal top usually has a metal piece that prevents water from flowing down the opening in the metal top.  The flue usually has a collar that overlaps the metal piece on the metal top.  The flue usually has a metal top to prevent water from going down the inside of the flue.  Any one of these items in this assembly can leak if not done correctly or if it has deteriorated.  Invest all the potential issues and effect a repair.