17” long, 2-3 plies of wood shingles, maximum 5” “exposed” per course
Wood shingle roofs have been used for hundreds of years. The quality of the roof depends upon the grain (“edge” grain or flat grain), the thickness (¼” to 0), exposure of each course, ventilation, and proper care and maintenance.
|Tree/bush Over Roof||Debris On The Roof||Flashing Rusted|
|Shingles Too Narrow||Overexposed Shingles||Cracks|
|Shingles Curled Up||Shingles Missing||Ridge Missing|
|Ridge Cracked Open||Ridge is Loose||Gap at Plumber’s Flashing|
|Plastic Gasket Cracked Open or Concave||Abandoned Plumber’s Flashing||Plumber’s Flashing/Vent Base Popped Up|
|Vent Cap Rusted Out, Damaged, Missing||Collar at Vent Missing/Not Sealed||Chimney Flashing Not Oriented Properly|
|Counterflashing Not Sealed/Loose||Mis-oriented Flashings at Bottom of Wall||No Step Flashing in Top Roof|
|Step Flashing Not Behind Siding||No Water Channel||Electric Insulator Not Sealed|
|Gutter Popped Out From Eave, Loose||Open at Hip/Ridge Intersection||Rotten Spot In Roof|
|Solar Installer / No Diverter||Hole in Roof||Skylight Installed Improperly|
|Tie-in at Flat Roof Incorrect||Broken Skylight||Less Than a 3/12 Pitch|
|Chimney Chase Leaks at Top||Less Than 4/12, Not Less Than 3/12 Pitch||Skylight- No Overlap of Flashing|
|Plastic Gutter||Gutter in Stucco|
This can break the shingles and damage the roof. It also can shade the roof, causing it to take too long to dry out, which can cause dry rot in the roof. The solution is to trim the tree/bush away from the roof line.
This can cause water to back up and allow seepage. It also causes dry rot in the shingles, which in turn leads to premature roof failure. Remove the debris.
Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today’s flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. There are rusted flashings on this roof. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be treated chemically, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we suggested repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.
Some shingles installed are too narrow, and do not have enough side lap. When there’s not enough side lap, water can get under the roof. Adjust, shim and/or flash the area or replace with a new shingle.
This is an installation error. If there is not enough overlap, it can cause premature roof failure, or not work at all and the roof has to be replaced. The top course of shingles is overexposed; maximum exposure is 5” per course. The top of the overexposed shingles and the course below are not as thick and will wear out faster (shingles are tapered ¼” to 0”) than the rest of the roof. Therefore, it typically will need repair sooner and more often than the rest of the roof. Replace the shingles or shim.
There are too many cracks, too close together, and too many courses in a row, which can allow seepage. Repair weak and damaged areas by adjusting shingles and/or installing shingles and/or brown sheet metal.
This is caused by the “grain” in the wood. When the wood gets wet, it dries from the top down, causing the wood to shrink on top and curl up. If the curled shingle exposes the sidelap to allow seepage, it needs to be repaired. If it does not, it is a cosmetic issue.
The shingles may not have been nailed (short nailed) and have slid out. The shingle cracked in a place that wasn’t fastened and slid out, or the shingle had a thin spot which deteriorated and broke off. Replace these with new shingles.
When the wood gets wet it swells up, putting pressure on the nail and causing it to loosen. The wind puts pressure on the fasteners. The sun breaks down the wood. Over time, if the roof is not maintained, it can blow off in strong winds. Replace with a new ridge.
When the wood gets wet it swells up, putting pressure on the nail, causing it to loosen. The wind puts pressure on the fasteners. The sun breaks down the wood. Over time, if the roof is not maintained, it can split open. Replace with a new ridge or flash the apex under the ridge.
When the wood gets wet it swells up, putting pressure on the nail, causing it to loosen. The wind puts pressure on the fasteners. The sun breaks down the wood. Over time, if the roof is not maintained, it can come loose. Re-nail the loose ridge.
This space between the flashing and the pipe should be sealed. Some people use sealant, which has to be resealed. Some people seal with tape, which is better. Some people seal with an EPDM collar, which is guaranteed for the life of the roof and is the best solution. Reseal to prevent seepage.
The sun eventually damages the gasket that is mechanically fastened to the galvanized base, which can leave a large opening for water intrusion. Replace the flashing or seal with rubberized asphalt.
Often during a remodel, when plumbing is moved, new flashings for pipes are installed and the old flashings are left open. Cover the hole in old flashings with sheet metal.
In strong winds the flashing can come loose and pop up, allowing seepage. Reanchor the flashing vent base.
Over time, exhaust from appliances will corrode and deteriorate the vent; damage from termite fumigation people or wind can cause the top to blow off. Repair or replace as needed.
The collar may never have been installed. Install if needed. Apply sealant between the pipe and collar to prevent seepage.
Improperly installed chimney flashing will allow seepage. Reorient flashings or replace with new.
Over time the mortar/sealant can come loose. If it is not repaired, seepage will cause interior damage.
Ell or step flashing is designed to bridge the roof to wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water that runs down the roof and wall is caught by the ell or step flashing and channeled to the roof’s edge. It is important that the ell or step flashing’s end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. On this roof, the installers did not flare the flange end and it terminates behind the stucco/ siding. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show up and may only be noticeable in heavy rains, after the wall has soaked enough to be evident.
This is a shortcut which will allow water intrusion to the roof below. Cut siding and install proper flashing to prevent seepage.
Proper orientation for step flashing is to put them behind the siding or counterflashing so water will not get under the roof and seep into the structure. Either apply elastomerics and polyester fabric to counterflashing or cut the siding and orient the flashing correctly.
Some installers put shingles to the apex of the valley. This does not allow for a water channel for the water to escape, which can cause water to back up and seep in, especially if there is debris. It can also cause the flashing to rust and fail prematurely. Trim the shingles to allow for a water channel and proper drainage.
The original insulator was installed on the original roof; the roof was replaced and the insulator left in place and never sealed. Install a water diverter above the insulator and seal around the insulator with rubberized asphalt.
The gutter was never fastened properly and/or the downspout was clogged and the weight of the water caused it to come loose. If the gutter is not reattached and oriented properly, the eave will get wet and dry rot will result.
Water will get under the roof system and allow seepage. Reorient the hip/ridge pieces and/or install flashing.
Roof rot is caused by debris and/or the roof never drying out due to being in the shade. Replace the damaged area and/or flash the area or if severe enough, replace the entire roof.
The solar installer never installed a diverter above the anchor that holds the solar panels to the roof. Without a diverter and proper sealant, this area will get super saturated and cause seepage. If possible, install a diverter above the anchor and seal without removing the solar panel. If there is no access, have the panels removed, then effect the repair.
Over time, the thin or weak spots in the shingles wear from the rain and UV rays from the sun, which creates holes, exposing the inside of the attic. This is usually on the south side, which will wear faster than the east, west, or north sides. If the roof was maintained properly, it would never get holes. A small hole can be shimmed. A large hole may require taking the roof apart and installing new shingles. Animals can also make a hole.
If flashings are not interwoven into the roof properly, seepage will occur. Reorient flashings.
The roof system must be integrated correctly or there will be seepage. Reorient the intersection of the two roof systems.
The amount of time it takes for the plastic dome to break down depends upon the quality of the plastic used to make the skylight. The dome can sometimes be replaced. It is easier just to replace the whole skylight. Some manufacturers give a lifetime warranty, even for plastic domes. Glass is heavier and more expensive than plastic. Glass has a higher R-value and lasts indefinitely.
Anything less than a 3/12 pitch is an improper pitch for a shingle roof. A shingle roof installed on a pitch of less than 3/12 must have a built-up roof under it with a grid of 2” x 2” boards embedded in the built-up roof and attached to the structure with 1 x 4 space sheeting on top. Then the shingle roof can be installed for aesthetic effect. Check with the local building official for their requirements.
A chimney chase is usually a wood framed box. The pipe for the fireplace goes through the box and out the top. Typical roof chimney flashings are installed then siding covers the framing and overlaps the chimney flashing. Last a metal top is installed which allows the chimney flue to go through to the outside air. The metal top usually has a metal piece that prevents water from flowing down the opening in the metal top. The flue usually has a collar that overlaps the metal piece on the metal top. The flue usually has a metal top to prevent water from going down the inside of the flue. Any one of these items in this assembly can leak if not done correctly or if it has deteriorated. Invest all the potential issues and effect a repair.
This must have a solid roof deck and a minimum layer of 30 lb underlayment installed before the shingle roof is installed. If this is not done, there will be seepage and premature roof failure. The only way to correct this is to replace the roof. Check with the local building official for their requirements.
The flashing does not go up high enough for the skylight frame to overlap the flashing and the wood curb is exposed. This is openand will allow seepage. Remove the skylight and install a counterflashing on top of the curb that overlaps the flashing on the side.
Plastic gutters do not come with a wing. The plastic gutter company makes a plastic diverter to divert the water into the gutter. If it is not installed, the edge of the roof deck will develop dry rot.
When the house was built, the sheet metal installer put the gutter too close to the stucco paper. When the stucco was applied, it went around the gutter, not behind it. Over time the gutter joint can deteriorate, allowing seepage in the wall. Remove the gutter, cut the end back, reinstall the gutter end, repair the wall with waterproofing materials, then reinstall the gutter.